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 Multiple Choice QuestionsMultiple Choice Questions

131.

A temporary endocrine gland in the human body is

  • Pineal gland

  • Corpus cardiacum

  • Corpus luteum

  • Corpus luteum


C.

Corpus luteum

Corpus luteum is the temporary endocrine structure formed in the ovary after ovulation. It is responsible for the release of the hormones like progesterone, oestrogen etc.

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132.

Which of the following pairs of hormones are not antagonistic (having opposite effects) to each other?

  • Insulin Glucagon
  • Aldosterone Atrial Natriuretic Factor
  • Relaxin Inhibin
  • Relaxin Inhibin

C.

Relaxin Inhibin

Relaxin relaxes pubic symphysis during parturition while inhibin decreases the secretion of FSH from anterior pituitary

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133.

Function of the somatostatin is to

  • stimulate pituitary synthesis and release gonadotropins

  • inhibit the release of gonadotropins from pituitary

  • stimulate pituitary and promotes the secretion of growth hormone

  • inhibit the release of growth hormone from the pituitary

  • inhibit the release of growth hormone from the pituitary


D.

inhibit the release of growth hormone from the pituitary

Somatostatin from the hypothalamus inhibits the release of growth hormone from the pituitary.


134.

Which one of the following enzymes is responsible for the conversion of norepinephrine to epinephrine?

  • Catecholamine-O-methyltransferase

  • Phenylalanine-N-methyltransferase

  • DOPA decarboxylase

  • Monoamine oxidase


A.

Catecholamine-O-methyltransferase

Phenylalanine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT) is an enzyme found in the adrenal medulla that converts nor-epinephrine to epinephrine. It is a protein whose encoding gene is found on chromosome 17 in humans. It catalyses the transfer of a methyl group from SAM (S-adenosyl-L-methionine) which is a factor to nor-epinephrine, converting it into epinephrine.


135.

What would not take place if chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla undergoes oncogenesis?

  • High blood sugar and glucosuria

  • High BMR

  • Pheochromocytomas

  • Low blood pressure


D.

Low blood pressure

Chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla are responsible for secreting epinephrine and norepinephrine. Their tumour will lead to hypersecretion of epinephrine causing high blood pressure, high blood sugar levels, glycosuria, high BMR, nervousness and sweating and pheochromocytomas.


136.

This hormone reduces cellular glucose uptake and utilization

  • Glucagon

  • Insulin

  • Aldosterone

  • Thymosin

  • Thymosin


A.

Glucagon

Glucagon is a peptide hormone mainly produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas. It works to raise the concentration of glucose in the bloodstream.


137.

Which one of the following hormones is released by the posterior lobe of pituitary gland?

  • FSH

  • ADH

  • ACTH

  • MSH


B.

ADH

Anti Diuretic Hormone (ADH) is released by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland which is also called vasopressin. It increases the reabsorption of water by kidneys.


138.

The pars distalis region of pituitary does not produce these hormones

I. Melanocyte stimulating hormone

II. Vasopressin

III. Prolactin

IV. Growth hormone

  • III only

  • I and IV

  • II and IV

  • II and III

  • II and III


E.

I and II

Pars intermedia secretes only one hormone called melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH). Neurohypophysis (pars nervosa) also known as posterior pituitary, stores and releases two hormones called oxytocin and vasopressin which are actually synthesised by the hypothalamus and are transported axonally to neurohypophysis.


139.

The hormone that stimulates the release of pancreatic juice is

  • secretin

  • glucagon

  • inhibin

  • insulin


A.

secretin

To regulate the digestive function of the pancreas, the endocrine system uses two hormones, i.e. secretin and cholecystokinin.

Secretin is produced from the cells in the lining of the duodenum in response to acidic chyme emerging from the stomach. It stimulates the pancreas to produce and secrete pancreatic juice containing a high concentration of bicarbonate ions.


140.

Which one of the following secretes glucagon?

  • Beta (β) cells of islets of Langerhans

  • Alpha (α) cells of islets of Langerhans

  • Acidophilic cells of adenohypophysis

  • Basophilic cells of adenohypophysis


B.

Alpha (α) cells of islets of Langerhans

The islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine cells. Hormones produced in the islets of Langerhans are secreted directly into the blood flow by five types of cells, mentioned as follows.

Alpha cells secrete glucagon.

Beta cells secrete insulin and amylin delta cells secrete somatosatin. 

Gamma cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide and epsilon cells secrete ghrelin.