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 Multiple Choice QuestionsMultiple Choice Questions

1.

One of the constituents of the pancreatic juice while poured into the duodenum in humans, is

  • Trypsinogen

  • chymotrypsin

  • trypsin

  • enterokinase


A.

Trypsinogen

Trypsinogen is the precursor form or zymogen of the pancreatic enzyme trypsin. It is found in pancreatic juice, along with amylase. lipase and chymotrypsinogen. It is activated by enteropeptidase which is found in the intestinal mucosa, to form trypsin.

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2.

In the stomach, gastric acid is secreted by the

  • parietal cells

  • peptic cells

  • acidic cells

  • gastrin-secreting cells


A.

parietal cells

The parietal cells secrete HCl in the stomach. 

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3.

Select the correct match of the digested products in humans given in column I with their absorption site and mechanism in column (II).

  • Column I

    Column II

    Glycine and glucose

    Small intestine and active absorption

  • Column I

    Column II

    Fructose and Na+

    Small intestine passive absorption

    Column I

    Column II

    Glycine and glucose

    Small intestine and active absorption

  • Column I

    Column II

    Glycerol and Fatty acids

    Duodenum and move as chilomicrons

  • Column I

    Column II

    Cholesterol and maltose

    Large intestine and active absorption

A.

Column I

Column II

Glycine and glucose

Small intestine and active absorption

Amino acids monosaccharides like glucose, electrolytes like Na+ are absorbed into the blood by active transport. Fructose and some amino acids are absorbed with the help of the carrier ions like Na+ by facilitated transport. Fatty acid and glycerol cannot be absorbed into the blood. They are first incorporated into small droplets called micelles, which move into the intestinal mucosa.

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4.

The primary dentition in human differs from permanent dentition in not having one of the following type of teeth

  • Canine

  • Premolars

  • Molars

  • Incisors


B.

Premolars

There are four classes of teeth, i.e. incisors, canines, premolars and molars. 
There are no premolars in primary dentition (deciduous or boby teeth). These are found only in permanent dentition (adult teeth)

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5.

Anxiety and eating spicy food together in an otherwise normal human may lead to

  • Vomiting

  • Indigestion

  • Jaundice

  • Diarrhoea


B.

Indigestion

Unhealthy eating habits together with anxiety, stress or panic attacks may cause indigestion, stomach ache, stomach palpitations, nausea, vomit, etc.

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6.

Gastric juice of infants contains

  • maltase, pepsinogen, rennin

  • nuclease, pepsinogen, lipase

  • pepsinogen, lipase, rennin

  • amylase, rennin, pepsinogen


C.

pepsinogen, lipase, rennin

Gastric juice of infants contains pepsinogen, lipase, rennin. It's pH varies from 7.5 and 8.5. Rennin is a proteolytic enzyme synthesised by stomach. Its role is to curdle or cogulate milk. Therefore, it is present in infants because they feed on milk but is absent in adults.

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7.

The guta of cow and buffalo possess

  • Fucus sp

  • Chlorella sp

  • Methanogens

  • Cyanobacteria


C.

Methanogens

Methanogens are microorganisms taht produces methane as a by product of its metabolism. These are both archeans and obligate anaerobes. They are commonly found in wetlands, where they form marsh gas and in guts of animals such as ruminants and humans, where they are resposible for flatulence(burping)

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8.

Which of the following statements is not correct?

  • Brunner's glands are present in the submucosa of stomach and secrete pepsinogen

  • Goblet cells are present in the mucosa of intestine and secrete mucus

  • Oxyntic cells are present in the mucosa of stomach and secrete HCl.

  • Acini are present in the pancreas and secrete carboxypeptidase


A.

Brunner's glands are present in the submucosa of stomach and secrete pepsinogen

Statements b, c and d are correct. Brunner's glands are compound tubular submucosal glands found in that portion of the duodenum, which is above the hepatopancreatic sphincter (sphincter or oddi). It secretes an alkaline fluid composed of mucus in which protects the duodenum from acidic chyme. It also secretes pepsinogen and urogastrone that inhibit gastric secretion.

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9.

The enzyme that is not present in succus entericus is

  • maltase

  • nucleases

  • nucleosidase

  • lipase


B.

nucleases

Succus entericus or intestinal digestive juice contains a variety of enzymes like disaccharidases (e.g. maltase), dipeptidases, lipases, nucleosidases. Nucleases are enzymes present in pancreatic juice that break nucleic acids into nucleotides. 

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10.

Which of the following guards the opening of hepatopancreatic duct into the duodenum?

  • illeocaecal valve

  • Pyloric sphincter

  • Sphincter of Oddi

  • Semilunar valve


C.

Sphincter of Oddi

Sphincter of Oddi guards the opening of the hepatopancreatic duct into the duodenum.

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