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# Human Reproduction

#### Multiple Choice Questions

1.

An oocyte is released from the ovary under the influence of LH

• after completing meiosis and before polar bodies are released

• after completing meiosis I and before release of polar bodies

• after completing meiosis

• after completing meiosis I and after release of polar bodies.

B.

after completing meiosis I and before release of polar bodies

Graafian follicle develops under influence of FSH of anterior pituitary.  Its follicular cells secrete estrogen. Rising level of estrogen decreases production of FSH, and stimulates secretion of LH. The two cause mature Graafian follicle to release the ovum.

2.

The phase of menstrual cycle in humans that last for 7 - 8 days, is:

• follicular phase

• ovulatory phase

• luteal phase

• menstruation

B.

ovulatory phase

The phase of menstrual cycle in humans that last for 7-8 days is ovulatory phase. During this phase, production of FSH decreases while that of LH increases which leads to ovulation on about the 14th day. But it may range from 9th to 16th day (approximately).

Follicular phase begins on the first day of menstruation and ends with ovulation.

Luteal phase is the second half of cycle. It lasts for about 14 days and ends just before a menstrual period.

3.

Which of the following is not a case of epimorphosis ?

• Formation of sperms from small clumps of cells

• Regeneration of tail in a lizard

• Replacement of severed arm in starfish

• Replacement of limb in salamander

A.

Formation of sperms from small clumps of cells

Epimorphosis is a form of development in segmented animals in which body segmentation is completed before hatching.

Formation of sperms from small clumps of cells can not be a case of epimorphosis.

4.

Which of the following steroid sex hormone influenced secondary sex organs?

• Progesterone

• Oestrogen

• LH

• LTH

B.

Oestrogen

Oestrogen is a steroid hormone secreted by Graffian follicle. It is responsible for development of secondary sexual characters in female such as thin voice, complete development of ovary, oviduct, mammary gland, uterus and vagina. Therefore, it is a steroid sex hormone that influences secondary sex organs.

5.

The origin of kidney and ureter in Rana tigrina is :

• all mesodermal

• all endodermal

• ectodermal and mesodermal

• mesodermal and endodermal

A.

all mesodermal

Kidney and ureter in Rana tigrina is developed from mesodermal layer.

Embryonic cells differentiate at an early stage and form an outer layer of cells, the ectoderm and an inner layer the endoderm. At the later stage, the mesoderm is formed and these three germ layers give rise to all the tissues of the developing embryo.

6.

Both corpus luteum and macula lutea are

• found in human ovaries

• a source of hormones

• characterized by a yellow colour

• contributory in maintaining pregnancy

C.

characterized by a yellow colour

Both corpus luteum and macula lutea are characterised by a yellow colour. After an egg is released from the ovary, the cells that line the ovarian follicle change shape and colour to become a corpus luteum (yellow body). Macula lutea is the yellowish spot present at the posterior pole of eye. Lutein, zeaxanthin, $\mathrm{\alpha }$- carotene and $\mathrm{\beta }$- cryptoxanthin are responsible for its yellow colouration.

7.

Which one of the following statements with regard to embryonic development in humans is correct?

• Cleavage divisions bring about considerable increase in the mass of protoplasm

• In the second cleavage division, one of the two blastomeres usually divides a little sooner than the second

• With more cleavage divisions, the resultant blastomeres become larger and large

• Cleavage division results in a hollow ball of cells called morula

D.

Cleavage division results in a hollow ball of cells called morula

During the embryonic development in humans, cleavage division results in a hollow ball of cells called morula. Solid mass of 32 cells formed from zygote after successive mitotic division (after 3rd division of cleavage) is called morula.

8.

Which one of the following events is correctly matched with the time period in a normal menstrual cycle?

• Release of egg: 5th day

• Endometrium regenerates: 5 - 10 days

• Endometrium secretes nutrients for implantation : 11 - 18 days

• Rise in progesterone level : 1 - 15 days

B.

Endometrium regenerates: 5 - 10 days

Menstruation is a part of the female reproductive cycle that starts when girls become sexually mature at the time of puberty. Menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system. Parts of the body involved during menstrual cycle include  brain, pituitary gland, uterus and cervix, ovaries, fallopian tubes and vagina.

The above mentioned options occur in a normal menstrual cycle in a time period of:

(i) Release of egg called ovulation usually takes place roughly 14 days after the first day of the start of a period for fertilization.

(ii) Following menstruation endometrium regenerates about 8 days during the proliferative phase.

(iii) Implantation occurs after 7 days of fertilization.

(iv) Progesterone level rises after ovulation which occurs after 14 days.

9.

A cross section at the midpoint of the middle piece of a human sperm will show

• centriole, mitochondria and 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules

• centriole and mitochondria

• mitochondria and 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules

• 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules only

A.

centriole, mitochondria and 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules

Sperm consists of head, neck, a middle piece and a tail.

When viewed under electron microscope, cross- section of a midpiece of sperm consists of-

(i) core of the flagellum is composed of an axoneme surrounded by 9 dense fibres.

(ii) axoneme consists of 2 singlet microtubules surrounded by 9 microtubule doublets.

(iii) mitochondria is well placed for providing the ATP required for flagellar movement.

10.

Progesterone is secreted by

• Corpus luteum

• Utreus

• Placenta

• Graafian follicle

A.

Corpus luteum

Progesterone is a steroid hormone and main female sex hormone. It is secreted during the later half of the menstrual cycle in human females by temporary endocrine tissue, the corpus luteum. The luteinizing hormone (LH) of anterior pituitary brings about a rupture of the Graafian folllicle to release the ovum and changes the ruptured follicle into a yellow structure called corpus luteum, which secrets progesterone.