Why did Buddha lay emphasis on righteous conduct and values ?
Buddha laid emphasis on righteous conduct and values because:
(i) The world is transient and constantly changing, it is also soulless as there is nothing permanent or eternal in it. It is by following the path of moderation between severe penance and self-indulgence that human beings can rise above these worldly troubles.
(ii) The righteous actions is the mean to escape from the cycle of rebirth and attain self- realisation and nibbana, literally the extinguishing of the ego and desire-and thus end the cycle of suffering for those who renounced the world.
Describe the ‘ideal of patriarchy’ and rules of marriage in the early societies from 600 BCE to 600 CE.
The ideal of patriarchy:
(i) While patriarchy had existed prior to the composition of the epic, the central story of the Mahabharata reinforced the idea that it was valuable.
(ii) Most ruling dynasties claimed to follow this system, although there were variations in practice.
(iii) The concern with patriarchy wes not unique to ruling families. It is evident in mantras in ritual texts such as the Rigveda.
(iv) It is possible that these attitudes were shared by wealthy men and those claimed high status, including Brahmanas.
Rules of marriage:
(i) While sons were important for the continuity of the patrilineage, daughters were viewed rather differently within this frame work. They had no claims to the resources of the household.
(ii) At the same time, marrying them into families outside the kin was considered desirable.
(iii) The belief of Kanyadan, the gift of a daughter in marriage was an important religious duty of the father.
(iv) The Dharmasutras and Dharmashastra recognised as many as eight forms of marriage. Of these, the first four were considered as good while the remaining were condemned.
Explain the growth of Puranic Hinduism from 600 BCE to 600 CE.
The growth of Puranic Hinduism:
(i) It included Vaishavism and Shaivism in which there was growing emphasis on the worship of a chosen deity.
(ii) In such worship the bond between the devotee and the god was visualised as one of love and devotion, or bhakti.
(iii) In the case of Vaishnavism, cults developed around the various avatars of incarnations of the diety. Ten avatars were recognised within the tradition.
(iv) Some of these forms were represented in sculptures, as were other deities. Shiva, for instance, was symbolised by the linga, although he was occasionally represented in human form too.
Explain how Krishna deva Raya was able to expand and consolidate his empire of Vijayanagara? Explain the causes of the decline of Vijayanagara after his death.
Krishnadeva Raya’s rule was characterised by expansion and consolidation.
(i) This was the time when the land between the Tungabhadra and Krishna rivers was acquired, the rulers of Orissa were subdued and severe defeats were inflicted on the sultan of Bijapur.
(ii) Although the kingdom remained in a constant state of military preparedness, it flourished under conditions of unparalleled peace and prosperity.
(iii) Krishnadeva Raya is credited with building some fine temples and adding impressive gopurams to many important south Indian temples.
(iv) He also founded a suburban township near Vijayanagara called Nagalapuram after his mother.
The causes of the decline of Vijayanagara were:
(i)His successors were troubled by rebellious nayakas or military chiefs.
(ii) In 1565, Rama Raya, the chief ministers of Vijayanagara, led the army in to battle at Rakshai-Tangadi, where his forces were routed by the combined armies of Bijapur, Ahmadanagar and Golconda.
(iii) The victorious armies sacked the city of Vijayanagara. The city was totally abandoned within a few years.
(iv) It was the adventurous policy of Rama Raya who tried to play off Sultan against another that led the Sultans to combine together and decisively defeat him.
Describe the agricultural technologies followed by the Harappans.
The agricultural technologies followed by the Harappans were:
(i) Representations on seals and terracotta sculpture indicate that the bull was known, and archaeologists extrapolate from this that oxen were used for ploughing.
(ii) Terracota models of the plough have been found at sites in Cholistan and at Bannawali.
(iii) The fields had two sets of furrow at right angles to each other, suggesting that two different crops were grown together.
(iv) Water reservoirs found in Dholavira may have been used to store for agriculture.
Why was Pakistan resolution of 1940 considered ambiguous ? Give any two reasons.
(i) This ambiguous resolution never mentioned partition or Pakistan.
(ii) In fact Sikandar Hayat Khan, Punjab Premier and leader of the Unionist Party, who had drafted the resolution was himself opposed to a Pakistan.
“Land revenue was the economic mainstay of the Mughal Empire.” Examine the statement.
Revenue from the land was the economic mainstay of the Mughal Empire:
(i) It was therefore vital for the vital to create an administrative apparatus to ensure control over the agriculture agricultural production. Revenue officials and record keepers penetrated the agricultural domain and became a decisive agent in shaping agrarian relations.
(ii) The Mughal state tried to first acquire specific informations about the extent of agricultural lands in the empire and what these lands produced before fixing the burden of taxes on people.
(iii) The land revenue arrangements consisted of two stages- first, assessment and then actual collection. The jama was the amount assessed, as opposed to hasil, the amount collected.
(iv) While fixing revenue, the attempt of the state was to maximise its claims. Both cultivated and cultivable lands were measured in each province.
Who was Ab’ul Fazal ? What is his major contribution?
Ab’ul Fazal was the author of the Akbar Nama, an adviser and a spokesperson for Akbar Policies.
In his role as court historian, Ab’ul Fazal both shaped and articulated the ideas associated with the reign of Akbar.
“The most important idea in Jainism is that the entire world is animated : even stones, rocks and water have life. Non injury to living beings, especially to humans, animals, plants and insects is crucial to Jaina Philosophy.”
In the light of the above statement, explain the moral values of Jainism.
According to Jainism:
(i) The cycle of birth and rebirth is shaped through karma.
(ii) Asceticism and Penance are required to free oneself from the cycle of karma.
(iii) This can be achieved only by renouncing the world.
(iv) Therefore, monastic existence is a necesary condition of salvation.
“The ideal of Sulh-i-kul was the corner stone of enlightened rule.” In the light of the above statement, make an assessment of the Akbar’s policy of Sulh-i-kul.
Abu’l Fazl described the ideal of Sulh-i-kul as the corner stone of enlightened rule:
(i) In sulh-i-Kul all religions and schools of thought had freedom of expression but on condition that they did not undermine the authority of the state or flight among themselves.
(ii) The ideal of sulh-i kul was implemented through state policies-the nobility under the mughals was a composite one comprising iranis, Turanis, Afghans, Rajputs, Deccanis-all of whom were given positions and awards purely on the basis of their service and loyalty to the king.
(iii) Akbar abolished the tax on pilgrimage in 1563 and Jizya in 1564 as the two were based on religious discrimination.
(iv) All Mughal emperors gave grants to support the building and maintenance of places of worship.