Highlight any four aspects observed by the Portuguese Traveller Barbosa on the Urban Core of the Vijayanagara Empire.
Barbosa has described that the houses of ordinary people are thatched:
i. Houses are well built and strong
ii. Houses were arranged according to occupations in long streets with many open places
iii. Entire area had many shrines and small temples which indicates the prevalence of variety of cults
iv. Rainwater tanks and temple tanks served as sources of water for the people.
“The mid first millennium BCE is often regarded as a major turning point in world history.” Justify.
i. Emergence of various thinkers like Socrates, Buddha etc in different parts of the world
ii. Development of kingdoms and cities
iii. Changes in social and economic life
iv. Emergence of Upanishads in India and compilation of Rig Veda.
Who was John Marshall ? How did he mark a change in the Indian Archeology ?
John Marshall was an archaeologist
He announced the discovery of a new civilization i.e. Indus Valley Civilization/ Harappa culture
Examine how Lord Dalhousie’s policy of annexation created dissatisfaction amongst the people of Awadh.
Lord Dalhousie’s policy of annexation:
i. Imposition of Subsidiary Alliance reduced the powers of the Nawab. Soon after the Nawab was dethroned by the British and exiled on the basis of misgovernment. Many people followed the Nawab when he left Lucknow
ii. Dissolution of the court and its culture led many people to lost their livelihood. There was widespread sense of grief and loss
iii. The sepoys of the British army who came from Awadh carried over their grievances to the sepoy lines
iv. The new land revenue system introduced by the British imposed high taxes and was unpopular. The dissatisfaction resulted in a popular revolt.
Read the following passage and answer the question that follows :
Every citizen in a free state should be treated in a manner that satisfied not only his material wants but also his spiritual sense of the self respect and the majority community has an obligation to try and understand the problems of the minorities and empathise with their aspiration.
How could a citizen of a free nation express his imbibed values of equality and social justice while dealing with the members of the minority community ? Explain.
i. Abolishing social dogmas
ii. Respecting rights of the minority community.
iii. Granting them privileges, Equality, Social justice.
iv. Integration into mainstream and creating opportunities for them.
Point out one similarity and one dissimilarity between Lingayats and Nayanars.
Similarity between lingayats and Nayanars –
i. Both opposed the caste system
ii. Both worshipped lord Shiva
i. Nayanars were not confined to any particular region while the lingayats were popular in Karnataka
ii. Nayanars worshipped Shiva in both an idol and linga form whereas Lingayats worshipped only the linga form
Mention any two changes that were observed after 1900 BCE in Harappan civilisation. What could have brought these changes ? Explain.
Changes observed after 1900 BCE in Harappan Civilization:
i. There is a decline in the material culture and disappearance of distinctive artefacts.
ii. Long distance trade disappeared along with craft specialisation.
Reasons for changes:
i. Climatic change and deforestation.
ii. Excessive floods and overuse of the landscape.
How did Indian hill stations become racial enclaves for the Europeans in the 19th century ? Explain two reasons.
i. Europeans recreated settlements reminiscent of their homes.
ii. Churches and educational institutions were set up by the British.
State the inherent problems faced by Al-Biruni in the task of understanding Indian Social and Brahmanical practices. Mention any two sources that provided him the support.
Problems faced by Al-Biruni in understanding India:
i. He could not understand Sanskrit language and found it difficult to translate Sanskrit into Arabic and Persian.
ii. Could not understand the difference in religious beliefs and practices and self-absorption of Brahmanas local population
He depended on Brahmanical works like
i. Vedas and Puranas
ii. Bhagavadgita and Manusmriti/Dharmasastras
“The battle between the hoe and the plough was a long one”. Substantiate the statement with reference to the Santhals and Paharis of Raj Mahal Hills during 18th century.
The battle between the hoe and the plough was a long one:
i. The British wanted to bring more land under cultivation for increasing agricultural produce and revenue.They failed to convince the Paharias to practice settled
ii. Hill folk in the Rajmahal hills were known as Paharias. They depended on forest produce and shifting cultivation or their living and grew a variety of pulses and millets for consumption.
iii. The British gave land to Santhals (Damin-i-koh) to settle in cultivate. The Santhals cleared land and converted it into cultivable land.
iv. Santhals displaced the Paharias. They practiced plough agriculture and ploughed land to grow rice and cotton.