Physics

ICSE Class 12

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Why are neutrons considered as ideal particles for nuclear fission reactions ? Calculate the energy released in the following nuclear reaction.

_{1}H^{2 }+ _{1}H^{2}_{ }→_{2}H^{4} +energy

(mass of 1H^{2} = 2.014102 u, mass of _{2}He^{4} = 4.002604 u).

Neutrons are used as projectiles in nuclear reaction, which initiates nuclear reactions and are present in product to carry the reaction further.

It is considered as ideal particles for nuclear reaction, because they are neutral particles on which neither any force of attraction nor any force of repulsion acts.

Mass of reactants = 2 x 2.014102 U = 4.028204 U

Mass of product = 4.002604 V

Mass defect = 4.028204 - 4.002604

Δm = 0.0256 U

Energy released = 0.0256 x 931 MeV

= 23.8336 MeV

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43.
The output of a OR gate is connected to a NOT gate as shown in the figure given below. Name the new gate formed. Draw the logic symbol and truth table of the new gate.

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44.
Two cells of same e.m.f. E, but different internal resistance r_{1} and r_{2} are connected to an external resistance R as shown in the figure. The voltmeter V reads zero. Obtain an expression for R in terms of r_{1} and r_{2}. Calculate the voltage across the cell of internal resistance r_{2}. (Assume that the voltmeter V is of infinite resistance).

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45.
In the figure given below, PQ is a long straight wire carrying a current of 5A in the direction of the arrow. An electron travels with a velocity of 10^{6} m/s at a distance 10 cm from the wire in the same direction of the current. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the force experienced by the electron.

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46.
Explain with necessary formula (no derivation) how you will compare the magnetic moments of two magnets by equal distance method using a deflection magnetometer in tan A position.

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47.

(i) With proper labelling of the axis, draw the input and output characteristic curves of a npn transistor in common emitter configuration.

(ii) Define current gain for a transistor in common emitter configuration.

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