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Chemical Coordination and Integration

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Class 10 Class 12
Write a note on thyroid gland.

Thyroid gland :

Location : It is present in the neck. Thyroid gland is the largest endocrine gland. It is bilobed and both the lobes are connected by isthmus.

Structure: The thyroid gland is a lobular structure having two lobes. The lobes are connected by a thin flap like connective tissue called isthumus. The thyroid gland has two types of cells called follicular cells and stromal tissues. 

Hormones synthesized : The thyroid glands release two hormones which are tetraiodothyronine or thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3

Functions of the hormones:

1. The thyroid hormones  play an important role in the regulation of metabolic rate.

2. they support the rate of red blood cell formation.

3. They control the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. 

4. They maintain water and electrolyte balance in the body. 

5. They regulate the blood calcium levels.


What is goitre?

Goitre is the condition in the the thyroid gland is enlarged and the neck portion becomes swollen .It is due to the deficiency of iodine in our diet which results in the less production and secretion of the thyroid hormones that is hypothyroidism.

Why is the Parathyroid hormone called hypercalcemic hormone?

PTH or parathyroid hormone is also called hypercalcemic hormone as it increase the calcium level in the blood.

Name the endocrine gland which is H shaped.

Thyroid gland.

Name the largest endocrine gland.

Thyroid gland.

Name the cells that the thyroid gland is composed of.

The thyroid gland is composed of the following :
i. Follicles
ii. Stromal tissue