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Digestion and Absorption

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CBSE Gujarat Board Haryana Board

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Class 10 Class 12
 Describe various Nutritional disorders.

Nutritional disorders are :

1. Marasmus : is a form of severe malnutrition characterized by energy deficiency. It is caused due to undernourishment causing a child's weight to be significantly low for their age. It is a disorder caused by deficiency of food or protein energy malnutrition .

2. Kwashiorkar : is a form of severe protein energy malnutrition characterised by edema, irritability , anorexia  and an enlarged liver with fatty infiltrates. 

3. Obesity :  It is the condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health It is quite common in persons having higher intake of sweets, carbohydrate rich food, fried edibles, fat rich food and absence of roughage in food.

4. Hyper-cholesterolemia : It is characterized by high blood cholesterol due to higher intake of cholesterol rich eggs, red meat, butter and ghee of reduced biotin intake. Cholesterol gets deposited on, the walls of blood vessels making their lumen narrow and walls stiffer.

5. Rickets : It occurs in children due to the deficiency of vitamin D, calcium or phosphorus.

6. Osteomalacia :The disorder occurs in adults when their food is deficient in vitamin D, calcium or phosphorus due to which the bones become weak and brittle. 

7. Night Blindness : It is due to the dietary deficiency of vitamin A results in deficiency of rhodopsin or visual purple pigment. It is the inability to see things in the dim light. 

8. Beri-Beri : Beriberi is a disbility produced by deficiency of thiamine.It is caused due to the deficiency of Vit B1.

9. Scurvy - It is caused due to the deficiency of Vitamin C. It is characterised by bleeding gums 

10. Anaemia : It is disorder in which haemoglobin content of the blood is low due to either few red blood corpuscles or their haemoglobin content. 

 

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What are Sanguivorous animals ?

The animals which suck blood e.g. leech, vampire bat, female mosquito etc.
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Name the fat soluble vitamins.

Vit A, D, E and  are fat soluble vitamins.
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What is the function of enamel in digestion?

The enamel helps in the mastication of food.
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What is Diphyodont ?

Diphyodont is the condition of having two set of teeth during the life of an organism. For example : humans are diphyodont as they have two set of teeth namely temporary milk or deciduous teeth which are replaced by permanent or adult teeth. 

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What is the order of arrangement of teeth in each half of the upper and lower jaw ?

The order of arrangement of teeth in each half of the upper and lower jaw is I,C,PM,M.  I (incisors), C (cannine), PM (premolars), M (molars).
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