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india people and economy

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Class 10 Class 12

In how many zones has the Indian Railways system been divided?

  • 9

  • 12

  • 16

  • 14


C.

16

1914 Views

Which are the chief means of transportation in India? Discuss the factors affecting their development.


The chief means of transportation in India is railways. Railways are called the system of national transportation due to the following reasons :

(i) It is the main mode of transport with its wider network.

(ii) Of all other means of transport put together, railways have become for more important in our national economy.

Its development has been influenced by the political, economic and geographical factors.

1. Political factors : The British Government wanted to exploit the Indian resources. Therefore it connected the ports and interior parts of the country by railways.

2. Economic factors : Supply of raw material in industrial and finished goods to markets. The dense population attracted the development of railways track.

3. Geographical factors : Relief features, climate, forest, desert also influenced the development of railway routes. Hilly regions, deserts, forests, flood-prone areas discouraged the development. On the other hand, northern plains of India provide favourable conditions for railway developments.
1339 Views

Give a detailed account of the development of railways in India and highlight their importance.


Indian railways network is one of the longest in the world. Indian railways is the largest government undertaking in the country. Its network is the fourth biggest network in the world. The total length of Indian Railways network is 63221 km.

In India the railway system has been divided in 16 zones due to its very large size.

Indian railways has launched extensive programme o converts the metro and narrow' gauge into broad gauge. Moreover, steam engines have been replaced by diesel and electric engines. This step increased the speed as well as the haulage capacity.

Metro rail revolutionised the urban transport system in Kolkata and Delhi.

The following table shows the performance of Indian Railways:

Table : Indian Railways Zone-wise income from passengers and goods (Rupees in lakhs)

Railway Zone

Headquarters

Earnings from Passengers %

Earnings from Goods %

% of Total earnings

Central

Mumbai CST

13.62

8.36

10.07

Eastern

Kolkata

6.18

3.3

4.24

East Central

Hajipur

5.19

7.84

6.98

East Coast

Bhubaneswar

2.27

9.69

7.27

Northern

New Delhi

15.38

8.94

11.04

North Central

Allahabad

6.71

8.76

8.09

North Eastern

Gorakhpur

3.44

1.55

2.17

North East Frontier

Maligaon (Guwahati)

2.34

2.59

2.51

North Western

Jaipur

3.44

3.04

3.17

Southern

Chennai

8.74

3.78

5.4

South Central

Secunderabad

8.45

8.88

8.74

South Eastern

Kolkata

3.23

7.86

6.36

South East Central

Bilaspur

1.7

8.91

6.56

South Western

Hubli

3.5

2.27

2.67

Western

Mumbai (Church Gate)

12.16

7.32

8.9

West Central

Jabalpur

3.62

6.91

5.83

Total

 

100

100

100


The importance of railways are as followings :

1. They are very useful for carrying heavy goods at long distances as compared to other means of transport.

2. Railways have got for greater capacity for hauling goods them other means of transport. About 4/5 of entire goods traffic. About 4/5 of entire goods traffic in India is carried by railways.

3. They are cheaper than other means of transport.

4. They provide employment to about 1603000 workers as regular employees and 200000 as casual labourers.

5. They link all the capitals of states, important cities and ports and trade centres.
 
688 Views

Discuss advantages and disadvantages of pipeline transportation.


The pipeline has certain advantages over other modes of transport:

1. The pipelines can be laid over difficult terrain as well as under water.

2. Their operation and maintenance cost is lower.

3. It involves very low energy consumption.

4. It ensures steady and constant supply of liquid and gases to the places at long distances.

5. It minimises transhipment losses and delays.

6. The pressure of carrying mineral oil and natural gas by railways has been reduced by the use of pipeline transport.

Disadvantages :

1. It is very difficult to desert leakage.

2. Their over laid capacity can not be increased.

3. Their security is also difficult.

4. Initial cost of laying the pipelines is very high.
3368 Views

Describe the role of roads in the economic development of India.


The roads play an important role in the economic development of the country in the following way:

1. About 85% of the passenger and 70% of freight traffic are carried by roads every year.

2. Roads are more suitable for short distances.

3. Road transport delivers goods to doorsteps.

4. It is useful for carrying perishable and consumer goods.

5. They join the fields of raw material to the industries.
587 Views