Write the mechanism of hydration of ethene to yield ethanol.
The mechanism of the reaction involves the following three step:
Step 1: Proptonation of ethene to form carbocation by electrophilic attack of H3O+.
Step 2: Nucleophilic attack of water on carbocation.
Step 3: Deprotonation to form an ethanol.
(a) Eight isomeric alcohols are possible:
b) Primary alcohol: pentan-1-ol; methylbutan-1-ol; 3-methyl-1-ol; 2,2Dimethylpropan-1-ol.
Secondary alcohol: Pentan-2-ol; 3-methylbutan-2-ol; pentan-3-ol
Tertiary alcohol: 2-methylbutan-2-ol
(HCl—ZnCl2) is lucas reagent, lucas reagent react with alcohol however it does not react with primary alcohol but readily gives turbidity with tertiary alcohols.
a) Reaction with (HCl—ZnCl2):
Butan-1-ol is primary alcohol thus no reaction occur.
where as 2-methyl butan-2-ol is tertiary alcohol, it forms 2-chloro-2-methylbutane.
Give the equations of reaction for the preparation of phenol from cumene.