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Chemical Kinetics

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Chemistry I

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Chemistry

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CBSE Gujarat Board Haryana Board

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Class 10 Class 12
Methyl acetate is hydrolysed in approximately N-HCl at 25°C. 5.0 mL portions of the reaction mixture were removed at intervals and titrated with 0.185 N-NaOH. From the data given below prove that hydrolysis of methyl acetate is a first order reaction.
t/sec 1242 sec 2745 sec 4546 sec
At Conc. -27.80ml -29.70ml -31.81ml

Here [ A]0 is proportional to the alkali consumed between t = &&& and t = 339 sec, i.e., [A]0 = (39.81 mL – 26.34 mL) = 13.47 mL [A]t is proportional to the alkali consumed at &&& minus the alkali consmed at the specified time. Thus,
[A], at 1242 sec = 39.81 mL – 27.80 mL = 12.01 mL
[A], at 2745 sec = 39.81 mL – 29.70 mL = 10.11 mL
[A], at 4546 sec = 39.81 mL – 31.81 mL = 8.00 mL
Substituting the values of t, [A]0 and [A]t in the first-order rate equation

k=2.303tlog A0At

we get the following values of k

(i)                  k=2.303(1242-339)seclog13.47 mL12.01 mL=1.27×10-4s-1

(ii)                 k=2.303(247.5-339)seclog13.47 mL10.11 mL= 1.19 × 10-4s-1

(iii)                k=2.303(4546-339)seclog13.47 mL8.0 mL=1.24×10-4s-1

Since the three values of k derived from first-order reaction are close to being identical, hydrolysis of methyl acetate is a first order reaction.

124 Views . 5 Shares

In a reaction 2A → Products, the concentration of A decreases from 0.5 mol to 0.4 mol L–1 in 10 minutes. Calculate the rate during this interval.

Given that 
Initial concentration [A1] =0.5
Final concentration [A2] =0.4
Time is  = 10 min

Rate of reaction = Rate of disappearance of A.

Rate of reaction = -12[A]t
                         = - 12(0.4-0.5) mol L-110 minute= 0.1 mol L-15 minutes= 0.005 mol litre-1 min-1.
2088 Views . 3 Shares

A first order reaction has a rate constant 1.15 x 10–3 s–1. How long will 5 g of this reactant take to reduce to 3 g?

Given that 
Initial quantity, [R]o= 5 g
Final quantity, [R] = 3 g 
Rate constant, k = 1.15 x 10−3 s−1
Formula of 1st order reaction,
We know that
              t=2.303klogR0R
or           
                t = 2.3031.15 × 10-3log53   = 2.3031.15 × 10-3(log 5 - log 3)        = 2.3031.15 × 10-3(0.6990 - 0.4771)     = 2.303 × 0.22191.15 × 10-3     = 2.303 × 0.2219 × 10001.15      = 444 sec.
1299 Views . 10 Shares

For the reaction R → P, the concentration of a reactant changes from 0.03 M to 0.02 M is 25 minutes. Calculate the average rate of reaction using units of time both in minutes and seconds.

Given that 
Initial concentration, [R1] = 0.03
Final concentration, [R2] = 0.02
Time taken ∆t = 25 min = 25 × 6 0 = 1500 sec (1 min = 60 sec )
The formula of average rate of change 

rav =-Rt =[P]t

(i) Average rate
                     = (0.03 - 0.02) M25 × 60 sec= 0.01 M25×60 s = 6.66 M s-1
(ii) Average rate
                        = (0.03-0.02)M25 min =  0.01 M25= 0.0004 Ms-1.
1717 Views . 4 Shares

For a reaction, A + B → Product; the rate law is given by, r = k[ A]1/2 [B]2. What is the order of reaction?

The order of the reaction is sum of the powers on concentration.
So that sum will 

r = k[A]
1/2[B]2

Order of reaction = 12+2 = 2.5.

1504 Views . 6 Shares

The conversion of molecules X to Y follows second order kinetics. If concentration of X is increased to three times how will it affect the rate of formation of Y?

Let the reaction is X →Y

This reaction follows second order kinetics.
So that, the rate equation for this reaction will 
Rate, R = k[X]2 .............(1)
Let initial concentration is x mol L−1,
Plug the value in equation (1)
Rate, R1 = k .(a)2
= ka2
Given that concentration is increasing by 3 times so new concentration will 3a mol L−1
Plug the value in equation (1) we get 
Rate, R2 = k (3a)2
= 9ka2
We have already get that R1 = ka2 plus this value we get
R2 = 9 R1 
So that, the rate of formation will increase by 9 times.
Rate = k[A]2
If concentration of X is increased to three times,
Rate = k[3A]2
or Rate = 9 k A2
Thus, rate will increase 9 times.

972 Views . 6 Shares

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