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The Solid State

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Chemistry I

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Class 10 Class 12
Analysis shows that nickel oxide has formula Ni 0.98 O1.00 What fractions of Nickel exist as Ni2+ and Ni3+ ions? 

Formula is Ni0.98O1.00
So the ration of Ni : O = 98:100
So if there are 100 atoms of oxygen then 98 atoms of Ni,

Let number of atoms of Ni+2 = x
Then number of atoms of Ni+3 = 98–x
Charge on Ni = charge on O
So that oxygen has charge –2
3(98–x) + 2x = 2 (100)
294 –3x +2x = 200
–x = – 94
x = 94

Percentage of Ni+2 = (atom of Ni+2/total number of atoms of Ni)100
= 96%

Percentage of Ni+3
=100 – Ni+2
=100 – 96
= 4 %


Why do solids have a definite volume?

A solid have a definite volume because the inter molecular distance  between its molecules are fixed.

Why is glass considred a super-cooled liquid?

Glass is amorphous solids and  have a tendency to flow, though very slowly. Therefore, these are called pseudo solids or super cooled liquids .

Classify the following as amorphous or crystalline solids: Polyurethane, naphthalene, benzoic acid, teflon, potassium nitrate, cellophane, polyvinyl chloride, fibre glass, copper.

Amorphous solids: Polyurethane, teflon, cellophane, polyvinyal chloride, fibre glass.
Crystalline solids: naphthlene, benzoic acid, potassium nitrate, copper.

Why are solids rigid?

Solids are rigid because the internuclear distance between the  molecules of a solid are very less and closely packed and their positions are fixed due to the strong forces of attraction between them.

Refractive index of a solid is observed to have the same value along all directions. Comment on the nature of this solid. Would it show clevage property?

Refractive index of a solid which have the same value along all directions are isotropic in nature. It would not show cleavage property.