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The Solid State

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Chemistry I

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CBSE Gujarat Board Haryana Board

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Class 10 Class 12

How many lattice points are there in one unit cell of each of the following lattice?
(a) face centred cubic
(b) face centred tetragonal
(c) body centred cubic

A face-centred cubic (fcc) unit cell contains atoms at all the corners and at the centre of all the faces of the cube.each atom located at the face-centre is shared between two adjacent unit cells and only 1/2 of each atom belongs to a unit cell

Thus, in a face-centred cubic
(fcc) unit cell:
(i) 8 corners atoms × 1/8 atom per unit cell = 8×1/8 = 1 atom
(ii) 6 face-centred atoms ×1/2 atom per unit cell = 6 ×1/2 = 3 atoms
∴ Total number of atoms per unit cell = 4 atoms

(a) z = 4,
(b) z = 4,

body centre wholly belongs to the unit cell in which it is present. Thus
in a body-centered cubic (bcc) unit cell:
(i) 8 corners × 1/8 per corner atom= 8×1/8 = 1 atom
(ii) 1 body centre atom = 1 × 1 = 1 atom
∴ Total number of atoms per unit cell =1+1 = 2

(c) z = 2.


Why do solids have a definite volume?

A solid have a definite volume because the inter molecular distance  between its molecules are fixed.

Refractive index of a solid is observed to have the same value along all directions. Comment on the nature of this solid. Would it show clevage property?

Refractive index of a solid which have the same value along all directions are isotropic in nature. It would not show cleavage property.

Classify the following as amorphous or crystalline solids: Polyurethane, naphthalene, benzoic acid, teflon, potassium nitrate, cellophane, polyvinyl chloride, fibre glass, copper.

Amorphous solids: Polyurethane, teflon, cellophane, polyvinyal chloride, fibre glass.
Crystalline solids: naphthlene, benzoic acid, potassium nitrate, copper.

Why are solids rigid?

Solids are rigid because the internuclear distance between the  molecules of a solid are very less and closely packed and their positions are fixed due to the strong forces of attraction between them.

Why is glass considred a super-cooled liquid?

Glass is amorphous solids and  have a tendency to flow, though very slowly. Therefore, these are called pseudo solids or super cooled liquids .