Mechanical Properties of Fluids

Physics Part II

Physics

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Verify Pascal’s law by giving an example.

Verification of Pascal's law giving an example:

Given, a container having opening of different cross-section provided with frictionless piston containing incompressible liquid.

Let the area of cross-section of pistons be A, 2A and 3A respectively.

Now, applying force F on the piston of area A, keeping the other pistons in position, a force of 2F is required on piston of area 2A and 3F force is required on piston of area 3A.

Therefore,

Pressure on piston of area A is,

$\mathit{}\mathit{}\mathit{}\mathit{}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}{P}_{\mathit{1}}\mathit{=}\frac{F}{A}$

Pressure on piston of area 2A is,

$\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}{\mathrm{P}}_{2}=\frac{2\mathrm{F}}{2\mathrm{A}}=\frac{F}{A}$

Pressure on piston of area 3A is,

$\mathit{}{P}_{\mathit{3}}\mathit{=}\frac{\mathit{3}F}{3A}\mathit{=}\frac{\mathit{F}}{\mathit{A}}$

Therefore, from the above 3 equations it is proved that pressure exerted is the same.

Hence, Pascal's law is proved.

Hence, Pascal's law is proved.

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Do intermolecular or inter-atomic forces follow inverse square law?

No. Intermolecular and inter-atomic forces do not obey the inverse square law.

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What is fluid?

Any material that can flow is a fluid. Liquids and gases are examples of fluid.

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What is hydrodynamics?

Hydrodynamics is the branch of science that studies about the force exerted by the fluids or acting on the fluids.

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What is hydrostatics?

Hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies incompressible fluids at rest. The study of fluids at rest or objects placed at rest in fluids is hydrostatics.

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Why solids have definite shape while liquids do not have definite shape?

Solids: Intermolecular forces are very strong and thermal agitations are not sufficiently strong to separate the molecules from their mean position. Solids are rigid and hence they have definite shapes.

Liquids: In liquids intermolecular forces are not sufficiently strong to hold the molecules at definite sites, as a result they move freely within the bulk of liquid, therefore, do not possess definite shapes. Liquids take the same shape as that of the container.

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