Mechanical Properties of Fluids

Physics Part II

Physics

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Verify Pascal’s law by giving an example.

Verification of Pascal's law giving an example:

Given, a container having opening of different cross-section provided with frictionless piston containing incompressible liquid.

Let the area of cross-section of pistons be A, 2A and 3A respectively.

Now, applying force F on the piston of area A, keeping the other pistons in position, a force of 2F is required on piston of area 2A and 3F force is required on piston of area 3A.

Therefore,

Pressure on piston of area A is,

$\mathit{}\mathit{}\mathit{}\mathit{}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}{P}_{\mathit{1}}\mathit{=}\frac{F}{A}$

Pressure on piston of area 2A is,

$\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}{\mathrm{P}}_{2}=\frac{2\mathrm{F}}{2\mathrm{A}}=\frac{F}{A}$

Pressure on piston of area 3A is,

$\mathit{}{P}_{\mathit{3}}\mathit{=}\frac{\mathit{3}F}{3A}\mathit{=}\frac{\mathit{F}}{\mathit{A}}$

Therefore, from the above 3 equations it is proved that pressure exerted is the same.

Hence, Pascal's law is proved.

Hence, Pascal's law is proved.

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Do intermolecular or inter-atomic forces follow inverse square law?

No. Intermolecular and inter-atomic forces do not obey the inverse square law.

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What is hydrodynamics?

Hydrodynamics is the branch of science that studies about the force exerted by the fluids or acting on the fluids.

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Why solids have definite shape while liquids do not have definite shape?

Solids: Intermolecular forces are very strong and thermal agitations are not sufficiently strong to separate the molecules from their mean position. Solids are rigid and hence they have definite shapes.

Liquids: In liquids intermolecular forces are not sufficiently strong to hold the molecules at definite sites, as a result they move freely within the bulk of liquid, therefore, do not possess definite shapes. Liquids take the same shape as that of the container.

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What is fluid?

Any material that can flow is a fluid. Liquids and gases are examples of fluid.

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