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Mechanical Properties of Fluids

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Physics Part II

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CBSE Gujarat Board Haryana Board

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Class 10 Class 12
Explain with an example that atmosphere exerts a huge pressure.

Atmosphere exerts a huge pressure.

For example, let us consider a hollow sphere.

i) Cut the sphere into two hemispheres.
ii) Place the two hemispheres in contact with each other.
iii) When there is air inside the hemispheres, two get easily separated. This is because there is air on both the sides of sphere at same pressure and hence net force on each hemisphere is zero and could be easily separated. 


iv) Now remove the air by using vacuum pump from the two hemispheres by placing in contact with each other.
v) When there is prefect vacuum inside, you will see that you are not able to separate them even by applying a large force.

As shown in figure, if we have a sphere of surface area 1 m2, we need the weights more than 10 quintal to separate the two hemispheres. This experiment shows that air exerts a huge pressure.

What is hydrodynamics?

Hydrodynamics is the branch of science that studies about the force exerted by the fluids or acting on the fluids. 

What is hydrostatics?

Hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies incompressible fluids at rest. The study of fluids at rest or objects placed at rest in fluids is hydrostatics.

Why solids have definite shape while liquids do not have definite shape?

Solids: Intermolecular forces are very strong and thermal agitations are not sufficiently strong to separate the molecules from their mean position. Solids are rigid and hence they have definite shapes.
Liquids: In liquids intermolecular forces are not sufficiently strong to hold the molecules at definite sites, as a result they move freely within the bulk of liquid, therefore, do not possess definite shapes. Liquids take the same shape as that of the container. 

Do intermolecular or inter-atomic forces follow inverse square law?

No. Intermolecular and inter-atomic forces do not obey the inverse square law. 

What is fluid?

Any material that can flow is a fluid. Liquids and gases are examples of fluid.