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Mechanical Properties of Fluids

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Physics Part II

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CBSE Gujarat Board Haryana Board

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Class 10 Class 12
A force of 2x102 N is applied on one of the piston of area of cross section 100cm2of hydraulic lift to support a car placed on the second piston of lift of area of cross section 1960cm2. Find the mass of the car.

Force, F = 2×102
Area of cross-section of the first piston = 100 cm2 
Area of cross-section of the second piston = 1960 cm

Weight of the car = ?

Let, M be the mass of car.

The pressure on the piston on which force is applied is, 

              P1=Fa=2×102100=2 N/cm   ...(1)

The pressure on the second piston on which car is placed is, 

           P2=MgA=M×9.81960=M200N/cm    ...(2)

Now, According to Pascal law we have

                       P=  P2    

 we get from equation (1) and (2),  

Mass of the car, M=400  kg 

What is fluid?

Any material that can flow is a fluid. Liquids and gases are examples of fluid.


What is hydrodynamics?

Hydrodynamics is the branch of science that studies about the force exerted by the fluids or acting on the fluids. 

What is hydrostatics?

Hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies incompressible fluids at rest. The study of fluids at rest or objects placed at rest in fluids is hydrostatics.

Do intermolecular or inter-atomic forces follow inverse square law?

No. Intermolecular and inter-atomic forces do not obey the inverse square law. 

Why solids have definite shape while liquids do not have definite shape?

Solids: Intermolecular forces are very strong and thermal agitations are not sufficiently strong to separate the molecules from their mean position. Solids are rigid and hence they have definite shapes.
Liquids: In liquids intermolecular forces are not sufficiently strong to hold the molecules at definite sites, as a result they move freely within the bulk of liquid, therefore, do not possess definite shapes. Liquids take the same shape as that of the container.