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Python Database

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Databases are critical for storing and processing data even if you consider a powerful programming language like Python. Ever wondered where does this whole large set of data is stored in or fetched from? In this article on “Python database connection”, I’ll talk about the same and take you through the following aspects in detail.

  • What is a database?
  • What is MySQLdb?
  • How does Python connect to a database?
  • Creating a Database
  • Database Operations-CRUD

Let’s get started.

What is a database?

A database is basically a collection of structured data in such a way that it can easily be retrieved, managed and accessed in various ways. One of the simplest forms of databases is a text database. Relational databases are the most popular database system which includes the following:

  • MySQL
  • Oracle Database
  • SQL server
  • Sybase
  • Informix
  • IBM db2
  • NO SQL

Among all these databases, MySQL is one of the easiest databases to work with. Let me walk you through about this in detail.

What is MySQLdb?

MySQLdb is an open-source freely available relational database management system that uses Structured Query Language. Now one of the most important question here is “What is SQL?”

SQL (Structured Query Language) is a standard language for relational databases that allow users to do various operations on data like, Manipulating, Creating, Dropping, etc. In a nutshell, SQL allows you to do anything with the data.

Let’s move ahead and dive deep into Python database connection wherein you will learn how to connect with the database.

How does Python connect to a database?


Before proceeding you should make sure you have MySQL db installed on your computer. Refer the below commands for installing MySQL in command prompt and pycharm:

Using Pip:


import mysql.connector

Moving on in this article with Python Database Connection let us see the parameters required to connect to the database:

  • Username- It is simply the username you give to work MySQL server with, the Default username is root.
  • Password- Password is given by the user when you have installed the MySQL database. I am giving password here as ‘password123’
  • Host Name- This basically is the server name or IP address on which your MySQL is running, If it is a ‘localhost’, then your IP address is

I will show you from a coding perspective to connect python with MySQL database.


import mysql.connector
mydb=mysql.connector.connect(host="localhost",user="root",passwd="password123") // I have used 'host','username','password'

Output will look like

<mysql.connector.connection.MySQLConnection object at 0x000001E8F35FC7F0>

Explanation: Here ‘mydb’ is just an instance. From the output, you can clearly see that it has connected to the database.

Next up in Python Database Connection, you will learn how to create a database.

Creating a Database:

Once the database connection is established, you are ready to create your own database which will be acting as a bridge between your python and MySQL server.

Let’s see the implementation part of it.


import mysql.connector
mycursor.execute("create database zigyadb")


  • In the above program, I have made use of cursor which is basically an object that is used to communicate to your entire MySQL server through which I am able to create my own database.
  • You can see from the output that my database with the name”zigyadb” is created which is custom, as you can give any name to your database.

If you want to see the databases in your MySQL server, you can implement the following piece of code in pycharm:

Example :

import mysql.connector
mycursor.execute("show databases")
for db in mycursor:


  • By implementing the above-written code I have tried showing all the databases which are existing in MySQL server.

Now that you have created your database, let’s dive deep into one of the most important aspects of Python Database Connection by doing few operations in it. Let us understand this in detail.

Database Operations[CRUD]:

There are numerous operations a programmer can perform using databases and SQL in order to have sound knowledge of database programming and MySQL.

I have demonstrated the CRUD operations below

  • Create– It is an SQL statement used to create a record in the table or can say it is used for creating a table.
  • Read- It is used for fetching useful information from the database.
  • Update- This particular SQL statement is used for updating the records in the table or updating the table.
  • Delete- As the name itself justifies this command is used for deleting the table.

Let us look at each aspect in detail from the coding perspective.

Create Operation:

import mysql.connector
mycursor=mydb.cursor()mycursor.execute("create table employee(name varchar(250),sal int(20))")


  • In the above-given program, I have created a table ’employee’.
  • Table employee has two fields ‘name’ and ‘sal’.
  • Here, the User id is “root” and Password is “password123” used for accessing zigyadb.

In order to see the table which I have created, refer to the following code in python

import mysql.connector
mycursor.execute("show tables")
for tb in mycursor:

Read Operation:

This particular operation happens in various stages. In order to do that first stage is to populate the table.


import mysql.connector

sqlformula = "Insert into employee(name,sal) values(%s,%s)"
//'values has placeholders

employees = [("sam",200000),("zach", 30000),("anne", 40000),("victoria", 50000),]
//Created an array of emplpoyees

mycursor.executemany(sqlformula, employees)
//Passing the data

//SQL statement used for saving the changes

Stage 2: In this stage, we will make use of the “select” SQL statement where the actual read operation will take place.

  • fetchall()– This particular function fetches all the data from the last executed statement.
  • fetchone()- This particular statement fetches one data from the last executed statement.


import mysql.connector
mycursor.execute("select * from employee")
myresult = mycursor.fetchall()
for row in myresult:

Explanation: In the above code we have made use of the function ‘fetchall()’. It fetches all the data from the last executed statement.

Update Operation:

This SQL statement is used for updating the records in the table. Let’s implement the code and see how the changes are taking place.


import mysql.connector
sql = "Update employee SET sal = 70000 WHERE name = 'sam'"

This was all about Update operation, moving on with “Python Database Connection” article we will see the last operation which is ‘delete’.

Delete Operation:

As the name itself justifies, Delete operation is used for the deletion of records from the table. Let’s understand it from a coding perspective.


import mysql.connector
sql = "DELETE FROM employee  WHERE name = 'sam'"

Explanation: In the above code I have deleted a record ‘sam’ as it was repeated twice.


This brings us to the end of our article on “Python Database Connection”. I hope you are clear with all the concepts related to database, MYSQL db, database operations in python. Make sure you practice as much as possible and revert your experience.

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