In this article, you’ll learn everything about different types of operators in Python, their syntax and how to use them with examples.

## What are operators in python?

Operators are special symbols in Python that carry out arithmetic or logical computation. The value that the operator operates on is called the operand.

For example:

```
>>> 2+3
5
```

Here, `+`

is the operator that performs addition. `2`

and `3`

are the operands and `5`

is the output of the operation.

**Arithmetic operators**

Arithmetic operators are used to performing mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

Operator | Description | Syntax |
---|---|---|

+ | Addition: adds two operands | x + y |

– | Subtraction: subtracts two operands | x – y |

* | Multiplication: multiplies two operands | x * y |

/ | Division (float): divides the first operand by the second | x / y |

// | Division (floor): divides the first operand by the second | x // y |

% | Modulus: returns the remainder when first operand is divided by the second | x % y |

** | Power : Returns first raised to power second | x ** y |

**Example for Arithmetic operators**

```
x = 15
y = 4
# Output: x + y = 19
print('x + y =',x+y)
# Output: x - y = 11
print('x - y =',x-y)
# Output: x * y = 60
print('x * y =',x*y)
# Output: x / y = 3.75
print('x / y =',x/y)
# Output: x // y = 3
print('x // y =',x//y)
# Output: x ** y = 50625
print('x ** y =',x**y)
```

**Relational Operator**

Relational operators compares the values. It either returns **True** or **False** according to the condition.

Operator | Description | Syntax |
---|---|---|

> | Greater than: True if left operand is greater than the right | x > y |

< | Less than: True if left operand is less than the right | x < y |

== | Equal to: True if both operands are equal | x == y |

!= | Not equal to – True if operands are not equal | x != y |

>= | Greater than or equal to: True if left operand is greater than or equal to the right | x >= y |

<= | Less than or equal to: True if left operand is less than or equal to the right | x <= y |

**Example for Relational operator**

```
# Examples of Relational Operators
a = 10
b = 30
# a > b is False
print(a > b)
# a < b is True
print(a < b)
# a == b is False
print(a == b)
# a != b is True
print(a != b)
# a >= b is False
print(a >= b)
# a <= b is True
print(a <= b)
```

**Logical operators**

Logical operators perform **Logical AND**, **Logical OR** and** Logical NOT** operations.

Operator | Description | Syntax |
---|---|---|

and | Logical AND: True if both the operands are true | x and y |

or | Logical OR: True if either of the operands is true | x or y |

not | Logical NOT: True if operand is false | not x |

**Example for logical operators**

```
# Examples of Logical Operator
a = True
b = False
# Print a and b is False
print(a and b)
# Print a or b is True
print(a or b)
# Print not a is False
print(not a)
```

**Bitwise operators**

Bitwise operators act on operands as if they were strings of binary digits. They operate bit by bit, hence the name.

For example, 2 is `10`

in binary and 7 is `111`

.

**In the table below:** Let `x` = 10 (`0000 1010`

in binary) and `y` = 4 (`0000 0100`

in binary)

Operator | Meaning | Example |
---|---|---|

& | Bitwise AND | x & y = 0 (`0000 0000` ) |

| | Bitwise OR | x | y = 14 (`0000 1110` ) |

~ | Bitwise NOT | ~x = -11 (`1111 0101` ) |

^ | Bitwise XOR | x ^ y = 14 (`0000 1110` ) |

>> | Bitwise right shift | x >> 2 = 2 (`0000 0010` ) |

<< | Bitwise left shift | x << 2 = 40 (`0010 1000` ) |

### Example for Bitwise operators

```
# Examples of Bitwise operators
a = 10
b = 4
# Print bitwise AND operation
print(a & b)
# Print bitwise OR operation
print(a | b)
# Print bitwise NOT operation
print(~a)
# print bitwise XOR operation
print(a ^ b)
# print bitwise right shift operation
print(a >> 2)
# print bitwise left shift operation
print(a << 2)
```

## Assignment operators

Assignment operators are used in Python to assign values to variables.

`a = 5`

is a simple assignment operator that assigns the value 5 on the right to the variable `a` on the left.

There are various compound operators in Python like `a += 5`

that adds to the variable and later assigns the same. It is equivalent to `a = a + 5`

.

Operator | Description | Syntax |
---|---|---|

= | Assign value of right side of expression to left side operand | x = y + z |

+= | Add AND: Add right side operand with left side operand and then assign to left operand | a+=b a=a+b |

-= | Subtract AND: Subtract right operand from left operand and then assign to left operand | a-=b a=a-b |

*= | Multiply AND: Multiply right operand with left operand and then assign to left operand | a*=b a=a*b |

/= | Divide AND: Divide left operand with right operand and then assign to left operand | a/=b a=a/b |

%= | Modulus AND: Takes modulus using left and right operands and assign result to left operand | a%=b a=a%b |

//= | Divide(floor) AND: Divide left operand with right operand and then assign the value(floor) to left operand | a//=b a=a//b |

**= | Exponent AND: Calculate exponent(raise power) value using operands and assign value to left operand | a**=b a=a**b |

&= | Performs Bitwise AND on operands and assign value to left operand | a&=b a=a&b |

|= | Performs Bitwise OR on operands and assign value to left operand | a|=b a=a|b |

^= | Performs Bitwise xOR on operands and assign value to left operand | a^=b a=a^b |

>>= | Performs Bitwise right shift on operands and assign value to left operand | a>>=b a=a>>b |

<<= | Performs Bitwise left shift on operands and assign value to left operand | a <<= b a= a << b |

## Special operators

Python language offers some special types of operators like the identity operator or the membership operator. They are described below with examples.

### Identity operators

`is`

and `is not`

are the identity operators in Python. They are used to check if two values (or variables) are located on the same part of the memory. Two variables that are equal does not imply that they are identical.

Operator | Meaning | Example |
---|---|---|

is | True if the operands are identical (refer to the same object) | x is True |

is not | True if the operands are not identical (do not refer to the same object) | x is not True |

**Example for Identity operators **

```
x1 = 5
y1 = 5
x2 = 'Hello'
y2 = 'Hello'
x3 = [1,2,3]
y3 = [1,2,3]
# Output: False
print(x1 is not y1)
# Output: True
print(x2 is y2)
# Output: False
print(x3 is y3)
```

Here, we see that `x1` and `y1` are integers of the same values, so they are equal as well as identical. Same is the case with `x2` and `y2` (strings).

But `x3` and `y3` are lists. They are equal but not identical. It is because the interpreter locates them separately in memory although they are equal.

### Membership operators

`in`

and `not in`

are the membership operators in Python. They are used to test whether a value or variable is found in a sequence (string, list, tuple, set, and dictionary).

In a dictionary we can only test for presence of key, not the value.

Operator | Meaning | Example |
---|---|---|

in | True if value/variable is found in the sequence | 5 in x |

not in | True if value/variable is not found in the sequence | 5 not in x |

### Example #5: Membership operators in Python

```
x = 'Hello world'
y = {1:'a',2:'b'}
# Output: True
print('H' in x)
# Output: True
print('hello' not in x)
# Output: True
print(1 in y)
# Output: False
print('a' in y)
```

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